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Principles on Symbiosis for Natural Life and Living AI

The development of Artificial Intelligence and Augmented Intelligence will make life take a variety of forms, and the development vision of Human-centered Artificial Intelligence and Augmented Intelligence needs to be refined as soon as possible and better prepared as possible to cope with future changes and evolution. In the future society, the development of Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Intelligence, Digital Technology, Brain and Neuroscience will very likely enable the creation of intelligent lives that reach or even exceed the intelligence level of humans that are created by natural evolution, and the traditional human beings will probably no longer be at the top of the intelligence pyramid. How human beings can form a sustainable symbiotic society with natural life including themselves, non-human animals, plants and other types of living artificial intelligence is an important issue related to human existence, which will bring fundamental challenges to human survival and transformative opportunities for human development.The “Human-based” Core of a Sustainable Symbiotic SocietyIn a sustainable symbiotic society, machines and humans are the two starting points for constructing future intelligent life. As two forms of intelligent life, human intelligence and human-inspired intelligence will present different models of development and possible futures, although it is not the whole story of life forms in a sustainable symbiotic society. For the time being and the perspective of modern humans, we define the following possible intelligent life forms as the “human-based” core.On the one hand, starting from human beings, although the human beings created by natural evolution have not stopped evolving, the speed of evolution is relatively limited. Humans with Augmented Intelligence are humans who are extended through augmented intelligence technologies such as the brain-computer interface. Digital humans are, in the true sense, the clones of natural humans in the digital world through future technologies such as digital cloning, brain and mind simulation, and consciousness uploading, and are the incarnation of human beings in the digital world. On the other hand, starting from machines, Artificial Intelligence inspired by human intelligence will present a variety of different development goals and paths. Efforts to construct seemingly intelligent information processing tools will produce machine intelligence (continuing the vast majority of current artificial intelligence research and applications), which is defined here as an inanimate intelligent computing system. Machine intelligence is also human-inspired intelligence, although it is at a lower level of intelligence and without life. The other two forms of human-inspired intelligence are Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and Superintelligence. Artificial General Intelligence is artificial intelligence that reaches the human level in all aspects of cognitive functions and abilities. Superintelligence is artificial intelligence that surpasses the human level in all aspects of cognitive functions and abilities. Unlike machine intelligence as defined above, AGI and Superintelligence have life. AGI and Superintelligence are advanced forms of artificial intelligence inspired by human intelligence.We collectively refer to Machine Intelligence, AGI, and Superintelligence as human-inspired AI. And we collectively refer to human intelligence, Augmented Intelligence-empowered humans, and digital humans as human-originated intelligence. In a sustainable symbiotic society, human beings will interact with five forms of intelligent life including themselves, AGI, Superintelligence, humans with Augmented Intelligence, and digital humans. And these five forms of life become the “human-based” core of the symbiotic society. The interaction between the above intelligent life is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The interaction between “human-based” future intelligent life (the solid line box shows the different “human-based” intelligent life forms, the solid line shows the interactions between different life forms, and the dotted line indicates that the machine and machine intelligence serve and promote the above different intelligent life forms)Interactions among Various Life Forms in the Sustainable Symbiotic SocietyThe sustainable symbiotic society is not only with the life forms presented in the “human-based” core. As shown in Figure 2, the first ones are the main life forms that originally existed on Earth, such as humans, non-human animals, and plants (marked in green). The life forms marked in blue are the new and expanded life forms based on humans. The life forms marked in black are those based on the expansion or inspirations of non-human life. Thus the life forms of a sustainable symbiotic society would contain at least nine major life forms as shown in Figure 2, all of which would be members of the sustainable symbiotic society. A truly sustainable symbiotic society can only be achieved if at least these nine life forms can coexist and achieve symbiosis in an appropriate and sustainable manner.

Figure 2. The main different life forms and their interactions in the sustainable symbiotic societyNot all AI is inspired by humans, and scientific exploration has already led to AI inspired by the functions of non-human animals and even plants, although such modern AIs are lifeless as human-inspired machine intelligence. In the sustainable symbiotic society of the future, artificial non-human animals and artificial plants will emerge and the society should be inclusive to them. This is not only due to the functional needs of human society (such as artificial pets for companionship), and the needs from other types of intelligent life (such as AGI, Superintelligence), but also based on the considerations of the life attributes of artificial non-human animals and artificial plants. It should be noted that in addition to the nine major life forms, the future sustainable symbiotic society also contains and will likely have other forms of life, and the society should be open and inclusive to these life forms.Principles of Natural Life and Living Artificial Intelligence in the Sustainable Symbiotic SocietyHumans currently appear to be at the top of the intelligence pyramid and have a strong influence (both positive and negative) on the existence of other different forms of life (e.g., non-human animals, plants) that have evolved through natural evolution. However, when humans are unable to live in harmony with different types of existing life and other types of life that reach or even exceed human intelligence emerged, the possibility that these new types of intelligent life will not be able to live in harmony with humans will also increase.As Superintelligence surpasses humans in every aspect of cognitive functions and abilities, then the part of social intelligence, especially in terms of empathy and altruism, will also likely far surpass humans. If humans can correctly adjust their position in the overall ecology and manage their relationships with other intelligent life, we should have confidence in humans in a sustainable symbiotic society.Ethics in a sustainable symbiotic society will not be limited to how humans should and should not interact with other humans, but will extend at least to how members of the “human-based” core of a sustainable symbiotic society that is with different forms of living intelligence relate to each other, and to give designs for how to relate to other life besides them. The following are basic principles for the types of intelligent life in the “human-based” core of a sustainable symbiotic society and their interactions with other life.1. Principles for AGI and SuperintelligenceTo become a relatively safer partner for humans and a member of a future sustainable symbiotic society, the design and implementation of AGI and Superintelligence should uphold, but not be limited to, the following principles.

2. Principles for HumanThe following principles specify how humans should treat other intelligent life in a sustainable symbiotic society.

3. Shared Principles for Humans and AGI and SuperintelligenceThis section defines common principles that naturally evolved humans, humans with Augmented Intelligence, digital humans, and sentient AI all need to follow.

“Principles on Symbiosis for Natural Life and Living Artificial Intelligence” is a design and preparation for the future sustainable symbiotic society. These principles are designed based on current understanding and should be adapted to the development and evolution of different types of life within the sustainable symbiotic society, and remain open to the integration of more types of intelligent life into the sustainable symbiotic society.The current version of “Principles on Symbiosis for Natural Life and Living Artificial Intelligence” is written and organized by the Center for Long-term Artificial Intelligence, and will be jointly improved and developed in collaboration with relevant institutions, scholars, practitioners, and other relevant parties around the world to promote and contribute to the realization of a sustainable symbiotic society in the future.

Main Drafters:The main drafters of the current version of “Principles on Symbiosis for Natural Life and Living Artificial Intelligence“ are:

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